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Arabica Coffee, Its Types And Characteristics

Arabica Coffee, Its Types And Characteristics

Makintau - Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) comes from the mountain forests of Ethiopia, Africa. In its original habitat, this plant grows under the canopy of lush tropical forests. This type of coffee is widely grown at altitudes above 500 meters above sea level.

Arabica coffee will grow optimally when grown at a height of 1000-2000 meters above sea level. With rainfall ranging from 1200-2000 mm per year. The most suitable ambient temperature for this plant ranges from 15-24oC. The plant cannot stand temperatures close to freezing below 4oC.

To flower and bear fruit, arabica coffee plants need a dry period of 4-5 months of the year. Usually arabica trees will flower at the end of the rainy season. When a newly blooming flower is hit by heavy rain, it will cause a failure to bear fruit.

Arabica coffee loves soil that is rich in organic matter. The organic material is used by plants for nutrient sources and moisture. The level of acidity or pH of suitable soil ranges from 5.5-6.

Plant Characteristics

Short arabica coffee plants resemble shrubs with a height of 2-3 meters. The stem stands upright with a rounded shape. The tree has a lot of branches.

The color of shiny green arabica coffee leaves is like having a wax coating. The old leaves are dark green. The shape of the leaves is elongated or oblong with tapered leaf tips. The base of the leaves is blunt and has a short stalk. The bone structure of the leaves is pinnate.

Arabica coffee begins to bloom after the rainy season. Flowers grow on the armpits of the leaves. Coffee flowers are white and can pollinate themselves, there is no difference between male and female flowers. From the shape of the buds to become a ready-to-harvest fruit takes 8-11 months.

The fruit is round like an egg, with a green fruit color then turns bright red as it ripens. When the fruit has ripen it tends to fall out easily. Therefore it must be harvested immediately, for details please read how to harvest coffee fruit. Fruits that fall into the soil will experience a decrease in quality, tending to smell the soil.

Arabica coffee trees have a deep tunjang root. Use these deep roots to support the tree so that it does not collapse easily and survive drought conditions. Root growth is determined from the moment the tree is removed from the nursery. Trees whose rooting does not grow well, will interfere with productivity.

Arabica Coffee Varieties

There are many varieties of arabica coffee grown in Indonesia. Each variety has different growing power and adaptability. The selection of varieties in cultivation should be adjusted to the environmental conditions in which cultivation is located.

To get optimal results use superior varieties from reliable sources. The Ministry of Agriculture through Puslit Koka always issued superior varieties. Some of them are as follows:

S 795. This variety has a productivity of 1000-1500 kg / ha at a planting density of 1600-2000 trees per hectare. Begins flowering at the age of 15-24 months. Somewhat resistant to the attack of leaf rust when planted at a height of more than 1000 meters above sea level.

USDA 762. The productivity of this type of coffee reaches 800-12000 kg / ha. Begins flowering at the age of 32-34 months. Somewhat resistant to leaf rust disease.

Andung sari-1. Productivity is about 350 kg / ha. Begins flowering at the age of 15-24 months. When grown at a height of less than 900 meters, this variety is prone to rust attacks of leaves but quite resistant to planting in less fertile areas.

Sigarar Debt. Its productivity reaches 1500 kg per hectare. This variety has the privilege of being able to bear fruit continuously following the pattern of rain distribution. The seeds are large in size, susceptible to pests of fruit powder and nematodes, but quite rust resistant to leaves. It is recommended to be planted at altitudes above 1000 meters above sea level.

Characteristics Of The Final Product

In general, arabica coffee is valued higher than other types. In terms of taste, arabica has a wide range. Each variety of coffee grown in a different place will have a significant difference in taste.

Arabica coffee has a strong aroma, light to medium viscosity (body) properties and high acidity levels. Caffeine content is lower than robusta which is about 0.8-1.5%.

Arabica Coffee Trade

More than 65% of the world's coffee trade is dominated by arabica. In addition to dominating market share, arabica coffee is currently valued higher almost twice as much as robusta. The arabica trading center is on the New York commodity exchange.

The largest arabica coffee producer is in Latin American countries. Almost 90% of the coffee production of Latin American countries is arabica. Brazil is the world's largest producer of arabica. While the world's largest coffee consumers are european union countries, followed by the United States and Japan.

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